Parking & Behaviour

Wednesday, 11 October 2017

by: Sacha Oerlemans

When there’s a parking problem, the first thing that comes to mind is that more parking spaces are needed. However, this is not always the case. It is advisable to first look at the applicable regimes and ‘soft’ measures before considering the option of expanding the area allocated to parking.

Selection menu

The selection menu contains various parking measures listed in order of parking area type/destination (such as residential areas and shops) and the different types of parking policy objectives (including quality of life).

Various measures are possible depending on the different types of situation and objectives, one option being a mix of measures that can be used to achieve tailor-made solutions. The most effective parking measures can then be chosen in line with the desired parking situation and the associated objectives.

A classification of instruments

Parking measures can be divided into five groups: physical environment, digital environment, parking regimes, marketing and social environment. The emphasis is on the effect that parking measures have on parking behaviour. How and in which cases can policymakers implement these measures to effect changes in behaviour that contribute to policy objectives?

Definitions of general policy objectives

Accessibility: accessibility for cars. This does not address traffic jams but the availability and accessibility of adequate parking for the location’s desired function. A good mark for this objective means it has a positive effect on the area’s functionality.

Quality of life: a healthy city. This deals with the external effects of car use and parking. A good mark for this objective means that an instrument can have a positive effect on the environment, safety, noise and other aspects of a healthy city.

Quality of public space: space claim by parked cars. A good mark for this objective means fewer cars on the street and increased usability of the public space due to extra space for accommodations, greenery, attractiveness and quality.

Economy: under certain conditions, parking quality can facilitate the economic value of the land and its functions. People are less likely to come to the area if there are no parking facilities. A good mark for this objective means a positive contribution to the economic value of the area.

Social: self-development opportunities for residents in relation to poor transport facilities. A good mark for this objective means a positive contribution to people's mobility options.

Financial: investments and commercial operation. This deals with non-recurring investments, management and maintenance, depreciation, exploitation and enforcement. A good mark for this objective means a positive contribution to the local budget in the long term.

An extract from the Dutch Transport Knowledge Platform (KpVV) CROW ‘Parkeren en gedrag’ [Parking and behaviour] report.